佛教相关概念中英对照

根据傅伟勋《死亡的尊严与生命的尊严》——“世界宗教与死亡超克”中佛教一节,及维基页面整理的佛教相关概念与中英文对照。

 

四圣谛 – The Four Noble Truths

  1. 苦,”The noble truth that is suffering”
  2. 集,”The noble truth that is the arising of suffering”
  3. 灭,”The noble truth that is the end of suffering”
  4. 道,”The noble truth that is the way leading to the end of suffering”

八正道 – Noble Eightfold Path

  • 慧, Prajñā is the wisdom that purifies the mind, allowing it to attain spiritual insight into the true nature of all things. It includes:
  1. 正见, dṛṣṭi (ditthi): viewing reality as it is, not just as it appears to be.
  2. 正思维, saṃkalpa (sankappa): intention of renunciation, freedom and harmlessness.
  • Śīla is the ethics or morality, or abstention from unwholesome deeds. It includes:
  1. 正语, vāc (vāca): speaking in a truthful and non-hurtful way
  2. 正业, karman (kammanta): acting in a non-harmful way
  3. 正命, ājīvana (ājīva): a non-harmful livelihood
  • Samādhi is the mental discipline required to develop mastery over one’s own mind. This is done through the practice of various contemplative and meditative practices, and includes:
  1. 正精进, vyāyāma (vāyāma): making an effort to improve
  2. 正念, smṛti (sati): awareness to see things for what they are with clear consciousness, being aware of the present reality within oneself, without any craving or aversion
  3. 正定, samādhi (samādhi): correct meditation or concentration, explained as the first four jhānas
十二因缘 – Twelve Nidānas
  1. 无明, Avidyā: ignorance, specifically spiritual ignorance of the nature of reality[47]
  2. 行, Saṃskāras: literally formations, explained as referring to karma
  3. 识, Vijñāna: consciousness, specifically discriminative[48]
  4. 名色, Nāmarūpa: literally name and form, referring to mind and body[49]
  5. 六入, Ṣaḍāyatana: the six sense bases: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind-organ
  6. 触, Sparśa: variously translated contact, impression, stimulation (by a sense object)
  7. 受, Vedanā: usually translated feeling: this is the “hedonic tone”, i.e. whether something is pleasant, unpleasant or neutral
  8. 爱, Tṛṣṇā: literally thirst, but in Buddhism nearly always used to mean craving
  9. 取, Upādāna: clinging or grasping; the word also means fuel, which feeds the continuing cycle of rebirth
  10. 有, Bhava: literally being (existence) or becoming. (The Theravada explains this as having two meanings: karma, which produces a new existence, and the existence itself.)[50]
  11. 生, Jāti: literally birth, but life is understood as starting at conception[51]
  12. 老死, Jarāmaraṇa: (old age and death) and also śokaparidevaduḥkhadaurmanasyopāyāsa (sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and misery)

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2 Responses to “佛教相关概念中英对照”
  1. Jesse says:

    本来是搜索Shelly Kagan 《death》相关的东西,没想到还有这宝贝
    Bonjour — 给您问个好,陌生的朋友

    Reply

    unicell Reply:

    你好~ 真高兴对你有用。

    Reply

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